The Power of Exosomes
Exosomes are microvesicles that are actively released by all living cells into biofluids and are a rich source of biological information - making them an ideal target for assessing prostate cancer risk
What are Exosomes?
Exosomes are small double lipid membrane vesicles (typically 30-200 nm in diameter) that are secreted from all cells. Exosomes encapsulate a portion of the parent cell cytoplasm and are shed into various biofluids, such as blood, CSF and urine.
Exosomes are a rich source of cellular protein, DNA and RNA and are particularly promising for profiling RNA expression from tumor cells as they are highly representative of their cell of origin and serve as a protective environment for mRNA during sample processing.
For EPI, advanced purification techniques are used to isolate exosomes and RNA from “first-catch” (approximately 15 mLs) urine specimens without the need for a prior digital rectal exam (DRE). The EPI gene signature and score incorporates levels of the PCA3 (PCa antigen 3) Prostate Cancer Antigen 3], ERG (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homologs) and SPDEF (SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets transcription factor)
Earlier disease detection
Exosomes are abundant and are released as an active process in early and late stages of the disease
Superior mutation detection
Enables analysis of RNA, and cfDNA, increasing the mutations available for analysis
Exosomes are released as an active process from living cells vs. cfDNA is released from dying cells (apoptosis/ necrosis)
Can analyze mutations, RNA profiles and proteins in various organs
Enables enriching for disease/tissue specific signal
Positive or negative selection of exosomes in biofluids can enrich the “signal to noise” and increase specificity
What Makes the ExoDx Prostate Test Unique?
In addition to relying on the power of exosomes to provide information otherwise found only through a tissue biopsy, The ExoDx Prostate Test is unique in the following ways:
- Excludes PSA from the analytic algorithm
- Targets prostate cancer-specific biomarkers (ERG, PCA3 and SPDEF)
- Does not require doctors and nurses to provide any patient information
- Does not require a DRE or prostate massage prior to urine collection
- Non-invasive, simple urine test
The EPI test allows for greater confidence to identify clinically significant prostate cancer in patients.
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