Superiority to cfDNA and CTCs
Biomarker signals in exosomes and extracellular vesicles are fundamentally different from cell free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in their origin and biogenesis. Cell free DNA or circulating tumor DNA is from dying cells. Circulating tumor cells are entire living cells that are shed from a tumor once the tumor reaches a certain stage in its development. In contrast, exosome generation is an active metabolic process that happens in all living cells in the body including normal healthy cells, making exosomes a rich source of biomarkers from living growing cells. Therefore, exosome analysis can provide insight into earlier stages of cancer growth as well as in non-cancer diseases or conditions, where no cell death is occurring and minimal amounts of cfDNA or CTCs are present.
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Meaningful signal from urine sample without DRE
Traditional analysis of urine samples for detection of biomarkers of prostate origin has required an unpleasant rectal prostate massage (DRE) to force enough cells to shed from the prostate into the urine to allow detection in a urine sample. However, by far the majority of prostate biomarker signal is in the exosomes released from the prostate and not in the cells. The efficient Exosome Diagnostics isolation protocol for exosomes from urine allows detection of prostate biomarkers in a urine sample with a prior DRE. This saves the patient an unpleasant and invasive procedure and allows for sample collection without the direct involvement of clinical personnel.